Гоголь Николай Васильевич
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Гоголь Николай Васильевич
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Переводы на иностранные языки
Nikolay Gogol. Viy
Translated by Richard Pvear and Larissa Volokhonsky
colossal creation of folk imagination. This name is applied
by people in Utlle Russia to the chief of [he gnomes, whose eyelids teach to
the ground. The whole story is a popular legend. 1 did not wish to change it
in any way and tell it almost as simply
1 heard it. (Author's note)
As soon as the booming seminary bell that hung by the gates of the
Bratsky Monastery in Kiev rang out in the morning, crowds of schoolboys and
seminarians' came hurrying from all over the city. Grammarians,
rhetoricians, philosophers, and theologians, notebooks under their arms,
trudged to class. The grammarians were still very small; as they walked they
pushed each other and quarreled among themselves in the thinnest trebles;
their clothes were almost all torn or dirty, and their pockets were
eternally fall of various sorts of trash, such as knucklebones, whistles
made from feathers, unfinished pieces of pie, and occasionally even a little
sparrow that, by chirping suddenly amidst the extraordinary silence of the
classroom, would procure for its patron a decent beating on both hands, and
sometimes the cherrywood rod. The rhetoricians walked more sedately: their
clothes were often perfectly intact, but instead their faces were almost
always adorned with some rhetorical trope: one eye completely closed, or a
big bubble instead of a lip, or some other mark; these swore by God and
talked among themselves in tenors. The philosophers dropped a whole octave
lower: there was nothing in their pockets except strong, coarse tobacco.
They kept nothing stashed away and ate whatever came along on the spot; the
smell of pipes and vodka sometimes spread so far around them that a passing
artisan would stand for a long time sniffing the air like a hound.
The marketplace at that time was usually just beginning to stir, and
women with bagels, rolls, watermelon seeds, and poppyseed cakes tugged those
who had them by their coattails of thin broadcloth or some sort of cotton.
"Young sirs! Young sirs! Here! Here!" they said on all sides. "There
are good bagels, poppyseed cakes, twists, rolls! Fine ones, by God! with
Another woman, holding up something long made of twisted dough, cried;
"Here's an icicle, young sirs! Buy an icicle!"
"Don't buy anything from that one! Look how foul she is--her nose is
awful and her hands are dirty . . ."
But they were afraid to pester the philosophers and theologians,
because the philosophers and theologians liked to sample things, and always
by the handful.
On reaching the seminary, the whole crowd settled by classes in
low-ceilinged but raiher spacious rooms with small windows, wide doors, and
dirty desks. The classroom would suddenly be filled with the hum of many
voices: the monitors listened to their charges, the ringing treble of a
grammarian would fall in tune with the jingling of the windowpanes in the
small windows, the glass echoing with almost the same sound; from the corner
came the low buzz of a rhetorician whose mouth and thick lips ought to have
belonged to philosophy at the least. He buzzed in
bass, and from afar all
you heard was: boo, boo, boo, boo . . . The monitors, as they heard the
lessons, looked with one eye under the desk, where a roll or dumpling or
pumpkin seeds stuck out of their subordinate's pocket.
If all this learned crowd managed to come a little earlier, or if they
knew that the professors would be later than usual, then, with universal
agreement, a battle would be planned, and in this battle everyone had to
take part, even the censors, whose duty was to look after the order and
morals of all the student estate. Usually two theologians decided bow the
battle would go; whether each class should stand separately for itself, or
they should divide themselves into two halves, the boarders and the
seminary. In any case, it was the grammarians who would begin it first, but
as soon as the rhetoricians mixed in, they would flee and stand on higher
ground to watch the battle. Then philosophy with long black mustaches would
step forth, and finally theology in terrible ballooning trousers and with
the thickest necks. The usual end was that theology would beat them all, and
philosophy, rubbing its sides, would be hustled into class, where it settled
down to rest at the desks. A professor who had once taken part in such
battles himself, on entering the classroom, would know at once from his
students' flushed faces that it had been a fine battle, and while he gave
the rhetorics a knuckle-rapping, in another class another professor would be
applying the wooden slats to the hands of philosophy. With the theologians
it was done in a totally different way: each was allotted, as the professor
of theology put it, a measure of "big peas," dealt out with a short leather
For feast days and solemnities, the boarders and seminarians went
around visiting houses with miracle plays. Sometimes they performed a
comedy, and on such occasions some theologian, nearly as tall as the Kiev
belfry, would always distinguish himself playing Herodias or the wife of the
Egyptian courtier Fotiphar.
As a reward they might get a length
of linen, or a sack of millet, or half a boiled goose, or the like.
All these learned folk, both seminary and boarders, while living in
some sort of hereditary hostility among themselves, had extremely poor means
of obtaining food and were at the same time extraordinarily voracious; so
that to count how many dumplings each of them gobbled up at supper would
have been a quite impossible task; and therefore the voluntary donations of
wealthy citizens were never enough. Then a senate comprised of philosophers
and theologians would send out the grammarians and rhetoricians, under the
leadership of one philosopher--and would sometimes join them itself--sacks
over their shoulders, to lay waste people's kitchen gardens. And pumpkin
gruel would appear in the school. The senators ate so much melon and
watermelon that the monitors would hear two lessons instead of one from them
the next day: one proceeding from the mouth, the other growling in the
senatorial stomach. Boarders and seminary wore what looked like some sort of
long frock coats which reached
a technical term meaning below
The most solemn event for the seminary was vacation, beginning with the
month of June, when the boarders used to be sent home. Then the whole high
road would be covered with grammarians, philosophers, and theologians.
Whoever did not have his own refuge would go to one of his friends.
Philosophers and theologians would go
that is, they would
undertake to teach or prepare the children of wealthy people for school, and
would earn a new pair of boots by it and occasionally enough for a frock
coat. This whole crowd would string along together like a Gypsy camp, cook
for themselves, and sleep in the fields. Each dragged a
sack on his back with a shirt and a pair of foot-rags. The theologians were
especially thrifty and neat: to avoid wearing out their boots, they would
take them off, hang them on a stick, and carry them over their shoulder,
especially when there-was mud. Then, rolling their trousers to the knee,
they would go splashing fearlessly through the puddles. As soon as they
caught sight of a farmstead, they would turn off the high road and,
approaching a cottage that looked better kept than the others, would line up
in front of the windows and begin a full-throated hymn. The cottager, some
old Cossack peasant, would listen to them for a long time, leaning on both
arms, then weep very bitterly and say, turning to his wife: "Wife! what
these students are singing must be something very intelligent; bring out
some lard for them and whatever else we've got!" And a whole bowi of
dumplings would be poured into a sack. A decent hunk of lard, a few white
loaves, and sometimes even a trussed-up chicken would go in as well.
Fortified with these supplies, the grammarians, rhetoricians, philosophers,
and theologians would continue on their way. However, the further they went,
the smaller the crowd became. Almost all of them would have reached home,
leaving only those whose parental nests were further away than the others.
Once during such a journey three students turned off the high road in
order to provide themselves with victuals at the first farmstead they
happened upon, because their sack had long been empty. These were: the
theologian Khalyava, the philosopher Khoma Brut, and the rhetorician Tiberiy
The theologian was a tall, broad-shouldered man, and of an extremely
strange character: whatever lay near him he was sure to steal. On other
occasions his character was extremely glum, and when he got drunk he would
hide in the weeds, and it would cost the seminary enormous efforts to find
The philosopher Khoma Brut was of a merry disposition. He liked very
much to lie about and smoke his pipe. When he drank, he was sure to hire
musicians and dance the trepak. He often got a taste of the "big peas," but
with perfectly philosophical indifference, saying what will be, will be.
The rhetorician Tiberiy Gorobets did not yet have the right to grow a
mustache, drink vodka, and smoke a pipe. All he had was his topknot, and
therefore his character was not much developed at that time; but judging by
the big bumps on the forehead with which he often came to class, one could
suppose he would make a fine warrior. The theologian Khalyava and the
philosopher Khoma often pulled him by the topknot as a sign of their
patronage and employed him as their deputy.
It was already evening when they turned off the high road. The sun had
just gone down and the warmth of the day was still in the air. The
theologian and the philosopher walked along silently smoking their pipes;
the rhetorician Tiberiy Gorobets knocked the heads off burdocks growing on
the roadside with a stick. The road went among stands of oak and hazel
bushes that dotted the meadows. The plain was occasionally disrupted by
slopes and small hills, green and round as cupolas. A field of ripening
grain showed in two places, making it known that some village must soon
appear. But it was more than an hour since they had passed the strips of
grain and no dwelling had come along yet. Twilight was already darkening the
sky, and only in the west was there a pale remnant of vermilion radiance,
"What the devil!" said the philosopher Khoma Brut. "It certainly looked
as if there'd be a farmstead."
The theologian said nothing; he looked around, then put his pipe back
in his mouth, and they all went on their way.
"By God!" the philosopher said, stopping again. "It's as dark as the
"Maybe there'll be some farm further on," said the theologian, without
releasing his pipe.
Meanwhile, however, it was already night, and a rather dark night at
that, Clouds made it gloomier still, and by all tokens neither stars nor
moon were to be expected. The students noticed that they had lost their way
and for a long while had not been walking on the road.
The philosopher, after feeling in all directions with his feet, at last
"But where's the road?"
The theologian pondered silendy and observed:
"Yes, it's a dark night."
The rhetorician stepped to one side and tried to feel for the road on
all fours, but his hands kept ending up in fox holes. Everywhere there was
nothing but steppe where it seemed no one passed. The travelers made another
effort to move forward a bit, but everywhere was the same wilderness. The
philosopher tried shouting, but his voice was completely muffled on all
sides and met no response. Only a little later came a faint wailing that
resembled the howling of a wolf.
"Well, what do we do now?" said the philosopher.
"Why, we stay and spend the night in the fields!" said the theologian,
and he went to his pocket to get his tinderbox and light up his pipe again.
But the philosopher could not agree to that. He had always been in the habit
of packing away a ten-pound hunk of bread and some four pounds of lard
before going to bed and this time felt a sort of unbearable solitude in his
stomach. Besides, for all his merry disposition, the philosopher was
somewhat afraid of wolves.
"No, Khalyava, we can't," he said. "What, lie down and stretch out like
some dog without fortifying ourselves? Let's try again, maybe we'll happen
onto some dwelling and manage to get at least a glass of vodka for the
At the word
the theologian spat to one side and observed:
"Sure, there's no point staying in the fields."
The students went on and, to their greatest joy, fancied they heard a
distant barking. Figuring out the direction, they listened, set off more
cheerfully and, after going a little further, saw a light.
"A farmstead! By God, a farmstead!" said the philosopher.
His anticipation did not disappoint him; in a short while they indeed
saw a small farmstead that consisted of just two cottages sharing the same
yard. There was light in the windows. A dozen plum trees stuck up by the
paling. Peeking through cracks in the boards of the gates, the students saw
a yard filled with ox carts. Just then stars appeared here and there in the
"Watch out, brothers, don't hang back! We must get a night's lodging at
The three learned men knocked at the gate with one accord and shouted:
The door of one cottage creaked, and a minute later the students saw
before them an old woman in a sheepskin coat.
"Who's there?" she cried with a muffled cough.
"Let us in for the night, granny. We've lost our way. It's as bad out
in the fields as it is in a hungry belly."
"And what sort of folk are you?"
"We're harmless folk: the theologian Khalyava, the philosopher Brut,
and the rhetorician Gorobets."
"Can't do it," the old woman grumbled. "I've got a yard full of people,
and every corner of the cottage is taken. Where will I put you? And such big
and hefty folk at that! My cottage will fall apart if I take in the likes of
you. I know these philosophers and theologians. Once you start taking in
those drunkards, there soon won't be any house. Away! Away with you! There's
no room for you here!"
"Have mercy, granny! Can it be chat Christian souls must perish for no
reason at all? Put us up wherever you like. And if we somehow do something
or other--let our arms wither, and whatever else God only knows. There!"
The old woman seemed to soften a little.
"Very well," she said, as if considering, "I'll let you in. Only I'll
make you all sleep in different places, for my heart won't be at peace if
you lie together."
"That's as you will, we won't object," replied the students.
The gates creaked and they went into the yard.
"Well, granny," said the philosopher, following the old woman, "and
what if, as they say ... by God, it's as if wheels are turning in my
stomach. We haven't had a sliver in our mouths since morning"
"See what he's after!" the old woman said. "I've got nothing,
nothing like that, and I didn't start the stove all day."
"And tomorrow," the philosopher went on, "we'll pay for it all, well
and good, in cash. Yes," he went on softly, "the devil of a cent you'll
"Go on, go on! and be content with what you've got. Such tender young
sirs the devil's brought us!"
The philosopher Khoma became utterly despondent at these words. But
suddenly his nose caught the scent of dried fish. He glanced at the trousers
of the theologian walking beside him and saw an enormous fish tail sticking
out of his pocket: the theologian had already managed to snatch a whole carp
off a wagon. And since he had done it not for any profit but simply from
habit, and, having forgotten his carp completely, was looking around for
something else to filch, not intending to overlook even a broken wheel, the
philosopher Khoma put his hand into his pocket as if it were his very own